# Function declarations¶

A function declaration consists of a type signature and a group of function clauses.

In the following example, we define a function multiplyByTwo. The first line multiplyByTwo : Nat -> Nat; is the type signature and the second line multiplyByTwo n := 2 * n; is a function clause.

  open import Stdlib.Data.Nat;

multiplyByTwo : Nat -> Nat;
multiplyByTwo n := 2 * n;


A function may have more than one function clause. When a function is called, the first clause that matches the arguments is used.

The following function has two clauses.

  open import Stdlib.Data.Bool;

neg : Bool -> Bool;
neg true := false;
neg false := true;


When neg is called with true, the first clause is used and the function returns false. Similarly, when neg is called with false, the second clause is used and the function returns true.

## Mutually recursive functions¶

Function declarations can depend on each other recursively. In the following example, we define a function that checks if a number is even by calling a function that checks if a number is odd.

  open import Stdlib.Data.Nat;
open import Stdlib.Data.Bool;

open import Stdlib.Prelude;

odd : Nat -> Bool;

even : Nat -> Bool;

odd zero := false;
odd (suc n) := even n;

even zero := true;
even (suc n) := odd n;


## Anonymous functions¶

Anonymous functions, or lambdas, are introduced with the syntax:

\{| pat1 .. patN_1 := clause1
| ..
| pat1 .. patN_M := clauseM }


The first pipe | is optional. Instead of \ one can also use λ.

An anonymous function just lists all clauses of a function without naming it. Any function declaration can be converted to use anonymous functions:

  open import Stdlib.Prelude;

odd : Nat -> Bool;

even : Nat -> Bool;

odd :=
\ {
| zero := false
| (suc n) := even n
};

even :=
\ {
| zero := true
| (suc n) := odd n
};


## Short definitions¶

A function definition can be written in one line, with the body immediately following the signature:

  open import Stdlib.Data.Nat;

multiplyByTwo :
Nat -> Nat :=
\ {
| n := 2 * n
};